Saturday, March 14, 2020

The Origins and History of Wine Making

The Origins and History of Wine Making Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes, and depending on your definition of made from grapes there are at least two independent inventions of the lovely stuff. The oldest known possible evidence for the use of grapes as part of a wine recipe with fermented rice and honey was in China, about 9,000 years ago. Two thousand years later, the seeds of what became the European wine-making tradition began in western Asia. Archaeological Evidence Archaeological evidence of wine-making is a little difficult to come by, of course; the presence of grape seeds, fruit skins, stems and/or stalks in an archaeological site does not necessarily imply the production of wine. Two main methods of identifying winemaking that are accepted by scholars are identifying domesticated stocks and discovering grape processing evidence. The main change incurred during the domestication process of grapes is that the domesticated forms have hermaphrodite flowers. What that means is that the domesticated forms of the grape are able to self-pollinate. Thus, the vintner can pick traits she likes and, as long as she keeps them all on the same hillside, she need not worry about cross-pollination changing next years grapes. The discovery of parts of the plant outside its native territory is also accepted evidence of domestication. The wild ancestor of the European wild grape (Vitis vinifera sylvestris) is native to western Eurasia between the Mediterranean and Caspian seas; thus, the presence of V. vinifera outside of its normal range is also considered evidence of domestication. Chinese Wines But the story really must start in China. Residues on pottery sherds from the Chinese early Neolithic site of Jiahu have been recognized as coming from a fermented beverage made of a mixture of rice, honey, and fruit, radiocarbon dated to ~7000–6600 BCE. The presence of fruit was identified by the tartaric acid/tartrate remnants in the bottom of a jar, familiar to anyone who drinks wine from corked bottles today. Researchers could not narrow the species of the tartrate down between grape, hawthorn, or longyan or cornelian cherry, or a combination of two or more of those. Grape seeds and hawthorn seeds have both been found at Jiahu. Textual evidence for the use of grapes (but not grape wine) date to the Zhou Dynasty (ca 1046–221 BCE). If grapes were used in wine recipes, they were from a wild grape species native to China- there are between 40 and 50 different wild grape species in China- not imported from western Asia. The European grape was introduced into China in the second century BCE, with other imports resulting from the Silk Road. Western Asia Wines The earliest firm evidence for wine-making to date in western Asia is from the Neolithic period site called Hajji Firuz, Iran, where a deposit of sediment preserved in the bottom of an amphora proved to be a mix of tannin and tartrate crystals. The site deposits included five more jars like the one with the tannin/tartrate sediment, each with a capacity of about 9 liters of liquid. Hajji Firuz has been dated to 5400–5000 BCE. Sites outside of the normal range for grapes with early evidence for grapes and grape processing in western Asia include Lake Zeriber, Iran, where grape pollen was found in a soil core just before ~4300 cal BCE. Charred fruit skin fragments were found at Kurban Hà ¶yà ¼k in southeastern Turkey by the late 6th–early 5th millennia BCE. Wine importation from western Asia has been identified in the earliest days of dynastic Egypt. A tomb belonging to the Scorpion King (dated about 3150 BCE) contained 700 jars believed to have been made and filled with wine in the Levant and shipped to Egypt. European Wine Making In Europe, wild grape (Vitis vinifera) pips have been found in fairly ancient contexts, such as Franchthi Cave, Greece (12,000 years ago), and Balma de lAbeurador, France (about 10,000 years ago). But evidence for domesticated grapes is later than that of the East Asia, but similar to that of the western Asia grapes. Excavations at a site in Greece called Dikili Tash have revealed grape pips and empty skins, direct-dated to between 4400–4000 BCE, the earliest example to date in the Aegean. A clay cup containing both grape juice and grape pressings is thought to represent evidence for fermentation at Dikili Tash, and grape vines and wood have also been found there. A wine production installation dated to ca. 4000 cal BCE has been identified at the site of Areni 1 in Armenia, consisting of a platform for crushing grapes, a method of moving the crushed liquid into storage jars and (potentially) evidence for the fermentation of red wine. By the Roman period, and likely spread by Roman expansion, viticulture reached must of the Mediterranean area and western Europe, and wine became a highly valued economic and cultural commodity. By the end of the first century BCE, it had become a major speculative and commercial product. Wine Yeasts Wines are fermented with yeast, and until the mid-20th century, the process relied on naturally-occurring yeasts. Those fermentations often had inconsistent results and, because they took a long time to work, were vulnerable to spoilage. One of the most significant advances in winemaking was the introduction of pure starter strains of Mediterranean Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly called brewers yeast) in the 1950s and 1960s. Since that time, commercial wine fermentations have included these S. cerevisiae strains, and there are now hundreds of reliable commercial wine yeast starter cultures around the world, enabling consistent wine production quality. DNA sequencing has enabled researchers to trace the spread of S. cerevisiae in commercial wines for the past fifty years, comparing and contrasting different geographical regions, and, say researchers, providing the possibility of improved wines. Sources: The Origins and Ancient History of Wine is a highly recommended website at the University of Pennsylvania, maintained by archaeologist Patrick McGovern. Antoninetti, Maurizio. The Long Journey of Italian Grappa: From Quintessential Element to Local Moonshine to National Sunshine. Journal of Cultural Geography 28.3 (2011): 375–97. Print.Bacilieri, Roberto, et al. Potential of Combining Morphometry and Ancient DNA Information to Investigate Grapevine Domestication. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 26.3 (2017): 345–56. Print.Barnard, Hans, et al. Chemical Evidence for Wine Production around 4000 Bce in the Late Chalcolithic near Eastern Highlands. Journal of Archaeological Science 38.5 (2011): 977-84. Print.Borneman, Anthony, et al. Wine Yeast: Where Are They from and Where Are We Taking Them? Wine Viticulture Journal 31.3 (2016): 47–49. Print.Campbell-Sills, H., et al. Advances in Wine Analysis by Ptr-Tof-Ms: Optimization of the Method and Discrimination of Wines from Different Geographical Origins and Fermented with Different Malolactic Starters. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 397–398 (2016 ): 42-51. Print.Goldberg, Kevin D. Acidity and Power: The Politics of Natural Wine in Nineteenth-Century Germany. Food and Foodways 19.4 (2011): 294–313. Print. Guasch Janà ©, Maria Rosa. The Meaning of Wine in Egyptian Tombs: The Three Amphorae from Tutankhamuns Burial Chamber. Antiquity 85.329 (2011): 851–58. Print.McGovern, Patrick E., et al. Beginnings of Viniculture in France. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110.25 (2013): 10147–52. Print.Morrison–Whittle, Peter, and Matthew R. Goddard. From Vineyard to Winery: A Source Map of Microbial Diversity Driving Wine Fermentation. Environmental Microbiology 20.1 (2018): 75–84. Print.Orrà ¹, Martino, et al. Morphological Characterisation of Vitis Vinifera L. Seeds by Image Analysis and Comparison with Archaeological Remains. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 22.3 (2013): 231–42. Print.Valamoti, SoultanaMaria. Harvesting the ‘Wild’? Exploring the Context of Fruit and Nut Exploitation at Neolithic Dikili Tash, with Special Reference to Wine. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 24.1 (2015): 35†“46. Print. European Wine Making In Europe, wild grape (Vitis vinifera) pips have been found in fairly ancient contexts, such as  Franchthi Cave, Greece (12,000 years ago), and  Balma de lAbeurador, France (about 10,000 years ago). But evidence for domesticated grapes is later than that of the East Asia, but similar to that of the western Asia grapes.   Excavations at a site in Greece called  Dikili Tash  have revealed grape pips and empty skins, direct-dated to between 4400-4000 BC, the earliest example to date in the Aegean. A wine production installation dated to ca. 4000 cal BC has been identified at the site of  Areni 1  in Armenia, consisting of a platform for crushing grapes, a method of moving the crushed liquid into storage jars and (potentially) evidence for the fermentation of red wine. Read more about the  wine production site at Areni-1 Sources This article is a part of the About.com guide to the History of Alcohol, and the Dictionary of   Archaeology.The  Origins and Ancient History of Wine  is a  highly recommended website at the University of Pennsylvania, maintained by archaeologist Patrick McGovern.   Antoninetti M. 2011. The long journey of Italian grappa: from quintessential element to local moonshine to national sunshine. Journal of Cultural Geography 28(3):375-397. Barnard H, Dooley AN, Areshian G, Gasparyan B, and Faull KF. 2011. Chemical evidence for wine production around 4000 BCE in the Late Chalcolithic Near Eastern highlands. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(5):977-984. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.11.012 Broshi M. 2007. Date Beer and Date Wine in Antiquity. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 139(1):55-59. doi: 10.1179/003103207x163013 Brown AG, Meadows I, Turner SD, and Mattingly DJ. 2001. Roman vineyards in Britain: Stratigraphic and palynological data from Wollaston in the Nene Valley, England. Antiquity 75:745-757. Cappellini E, Gilbert M, Geuna F, Fiorentino G, Hall A, Thomas-Oates J, Ashton P, Ashford D, Arthur P, Campos P et al. 2010. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds. Naturwissenschaften 97(2):205-217. Figueiral I, Bouby L, Buffat L, Petitot H, and Terral JF. 2010. Archaeobotany, vine growing and wine producing in Roman Southern France: the site of Gasquinoy (Bà ©ziers, Hà ©rault). Journal of Archaeological Science 37(1):139-149. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2009.09.024 Goldberg KD. 2011. Acidity and Power: The Politics of Natural Wine in Nineteenth-Century Germany. Food and Foodways 19(4):294-313. Guasch Janà © MR. 2011. The meaning of wine in Egyptian tombs: the three amphorae from Tutankhamuns burial chamber. Antiquity 85(329):851-858. Isaksson S, Karlsson C, and Eriksson T. 2010. Ergosterol (5, 7, 22-ergostatrien-3[beta]-ol) as a potential biomarker for alcohol fermentation in lipid residues from prehistoric pottery. Journal of Archaeological Science 37(12):3263-3268. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.07.027 Koh AJ, and Betancourt PP. 2010. Wine and olive oil from an early Minoan I hilltop fort. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 10(2):115-123. McGovern PE, Luley BP, Rovira N, Mirzolan A, Callahan MP, Smith KE, Hall GR, Davidson T, and Henkin JM. 2013. Beginnings of viniculture in France. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(25):10147-10152. McGovern PE, Zhang J, Tang J, Zhang Z, Hall GR, Moreau RA, Nuà ±ez A, Butrym ED, Richards MP, Wang C-s et al. 2004. Fermented Beverages of Pre- and Proto-Historic China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(51):17593-17598. Miller NF. 2008. Sweeter than wine? The use of the grape in early western Asia. Antiquity 82:937–946. Orrà ¹ M, Grillo O, Lovicu G, Venora G, and Bacchetta G. 2013. Morphological characterisation of Vitis vinifera L. seeds by image analysis and comparison with archaeological remains. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 22(3):231-242. Valamoti SM, Mangafa M, Koukouli-Chrysanthaki C, and Malamidou D. 2007. Grape-pressings from northern Greece: the earliest wine in the Aegean? Antiquity 81(311):54–61.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Dell computers - describe their marketing plan Essay

Dell computers - describe their marketing plan - Essay Example Through highly creative approach of meeting the challenges of fast changing requirements of the people, the company follows a dynamic strategy that incorporates the following major ingredients of competitive advantage. Marketing Mix Dell Computers has highly innovative approach towards marketing and pursues a market mix strategy to promote its goods and services. Unique aspects of its products and services are important ingredients of its market strategies that it promotes through various channels of mass media. While its online presence provides it with great asset to communicate with its customers on a personal level, it also helps the firm to access a larger database of prospective customers and showcase its range of products. The visual advertisements of Dell are intrinsically lined to the company’s mission and goals of meeting the needs of the people. They portray company’s state of the products and services under the landscape of changing socio-economic paradigms and demography. Thus, its advertisement on various channels show how its products are used by people from different market segmentation – from the common man to meeting the highly complex demands of specific industry or individuals through customization of products and services. ... The company is able to do so through exploiting people’s changing requirements and providing them with goods and services that meet their preferences. It specializes in the personal computers and accessories. The company continuously strives for new product development that can exploit the huge potential of Information technology. Dell’s vision of future encompasses flexible computer solutions so that its customers can easily manage to work within the complex environment of information technology comprising of ‘the data, preferences, applications, operating systems and associated IT policies that uniquely define the individual’. Indeed the solutions are designed to ‘provide IT with centralized control  of end-user data and images (or digital identity), while  still enabling end-user flexibility  to work from anywhere and eventually on any device’ (dell.com) Using green technology and client virtualization hosting are yet another areas tha t provides it with unique market leadership initiatives. It is a key technology that facilitates the customers to run multiple applications under different operating system with complete data security. In the fast advancing technology, Dell’s products and services provide the customers wit state of the art technology that can meet the future challenges with confidence and total security. Thus, various products and services have become vital differentiating elements of Dell’s competitive advantage within the industry. Promotion of brand image The company has been able to establish a highly credible brand image. Kotler (2005) strongly stresses that brand building is extremely important aspect of marketing because

Monday, February 10, 2020

Individual Compensation Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Individual Compensation Paper - Essay Example interpersonal relationship, the relational satisfaction will be judged by the individual perception of resource distribution being fair or unfair (Adams, 270)†. The application perspective of the theory says that the employee has certain types of input (time, effort, ability, trust) and produces output (salary, recognition, responsibility, job security) and he compares both on the constant basis to determine the equity between efforts and rewards (Yum and Canary, 390). Russell is a pharmacy professional and works as an administrator of a Health Care Center. He needs to know if he is paid fairly by his organization. In order to answer the question, the paper proceeds with components of his total reward package. Russell enjoys handsome salary and perceives it higher than the one offered in market to other professionals of same cadre. Hence, he can afford standard of living consistent with market pay levels. He is an administrator which shows career progression is provided to him. His base pay level is also the evidence that his organization rewards him for his performance. Russell is also entitled to receive 6 bonus salaries per year (18 in total). It is an opportunity to earn additional direct compensation. This additional compensation is not possible without the effective performance of his team members and achieving organizational goals. Organizations pay salaries out of their revenues and revenues are dependent on the employees’ performance. Russell’s organization promises him for many benefits other than the ones mentioned under the above headings. These benefits win Russell’s loyalty and provide win-win solution for him and his organization. Russell expects his organization to pay him fairly against his time and efforts that he dedicated to the organization. He assumes that the efforts he puts on workplace will lead to good performance and achievement of organizational goals. He is justified to expect reward of his performance and the organization

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Plow and Cyrus Essay Example for Free

Plow and Cyrus Essay John Deere’s Steel-Tipped Plow and Cyrus McCormicks’s Mechanical Reaper – Deere invented a steel-tipped plow that halved the labor to clear acres to till. Timber for housing and fencing was available in nearby woods, and settlements spread rapidly. McCormick developed the mechanical reaper which harvested grain seven times faster than traditional methods with half the work force and guaranteed that wheat would dominate the Midwestern prairies. American System of Manufacturing, or Interchangeable Parts – Europeans had started to refer to manufacture by interchangeable parts as the â€Å"American System of Manufacturing. The system had many advantages. Traditionally, damage to any part of something ruined the whole thing and no new part would fit. With interchangeable parts, however, replacement parts could be obtained and mass production also occurred. Samuel F. B. Morse – Morse was an American inventor. He contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system bases on European telegraphs. He was also co-inventor of the Morse code, and also an accomplished painter. Catharine Beecher, A Treatise on Domestic Economy – In her widely popular Treatise on Domestic Economy, Beecher told women that technological advances made it their duty to make every house a â€Å"glorious temple† by utilizing space more efficiently. Contagion Theory versus Miasma Theory – The inability of physicians to explain the diseases led to these theories. No one understood that bacteria cause cholera and yellow fever. The contagion theory was that epidemic diseases were spread by touch, whereas the miasmas theory was it resulted from air carried gases from rotten vegetation or dead animals. But neither theory worked. Crawford Long and William T. G. Morton – Long employed sulfuric ether during a surgical operation. Long failed to follow up on his discovery, but four years later, Morton, a dentist, successfully employed sulfuric ether during an operation at MA General Hospital in Boston. Within a few years, ether came into wide use in American surgery. Hydropathy – Hydropathy was known as the â€Å"water cure,† which filtered into the United States from Europe. By the mid-1850s the United States had twenty-seven hydropathic sanatoriums, which used cold baths and wet packs. It helped relieve the pain associated with childbirth and menstruation. Sylvester Graham – Graham propounded a health system that anyone could adopt. Alarmed by the cholera epidemic, Graham counseled changes in dies and regimen as well as total abstinence from alcohol. Soon, he added sexual â€Å"excess† to his list of forbidden indulgences. Phrenology – The belief that each person was master of his or her own destiny underlay not only evangelical religion and popular health movements but also the most popular of the antebellum scientific fads: phrenology. It rested on the idea that the human mind comprised thirty-seven distinct organs, each located in the different part of the brain. James Gordon Bennett, the New York Herald, and the Penny Press – Bennett applied new technology to introduce the penny press. Newspapers could now rely on vast circulations rather than on political subsidies to turn a profit. The New York Sun became America’s first penny newspaper, and Bennett’s New York Herald followed in 1835. Horace Greeley and the New York Tribune Greeley’s New York Tribune pioneered modern financial and political reporting. The relentless snooping of the Tribune’s Washington reporters outrages politicians. In 1848, Tribune correspondents were temporarily barred from the House floor for reporting about Representative Sawyer of Ohio. Astor Place Riot – In 1849, a long-running feud between the leading American actor, Edwin Forrest, and popular British actor William Macready ended with the Astor Place riot in New York City, which left twenty-two people dead. This riot demonstrated the broad popularity of the theater. Minstrel Shows – These shows arose in northern cities when white men in blackface took to the stage to present and evening of songs, dances, and humorous sketches. Minstrelsy borrowed some authentic elements of African-American culture, especially dances. P. T. Barnum and the American Museum – Barnum purchased a run-down museum in NYC, rechristened it the American Museum, and opened a new chapter in the history of popular entertainment. The founders of earlier museums had educational purposes. Barnum, in contrast, made pricking public curiosity the main goal. Washington Irving – When British questioned â€Å"Who ever reads an American book? ,† Americans responded by pointing to Irving, whose Sketch Book contained two famous stories, â€Å"Rip Van Winkle† and â€Å"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. † Naming hotels and steamboats after Irving, Americans soaked him in applause, but they had to concede that Irving had done much of his best writing while living in England. James Fenimore Cooper – Cooper was the first important figure in this literary upsurge. His most significant innovation was to introduce a distinctively American fictional character, the frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Edgar Allan Poe – Poe wrote both fictional and poetry and was a major contributor to the American Renaissance. He set several of his short stories in Europe; as one critic has noted, â€Å"His art could have been produced as easily had he been born in Europe. † American Renaissance – The Renaissance was a flowering of literature. In 1800, American authors accounted for a negligible proportion of the output of American publishers. By 1830, 40 percent of the books published in the United States were written by Americans; by 1850 this had increased to 75 percent. Not only were Americans writing more books; increasingly, they sought to depict the features of their nation in literature and art. Henry David Thoreau – Thoreau was representative of the younger Emersonians. He was more of a doer and was adventurous in action. At one point, he went to jail rather than to pay his poll tax. This revenue, he knew, would support the war in Mexico, which he viewed as part of a southern conspiracy to extend slavery. The experience led Thoreau to write â€Å"Civil Disobedience† in which he defended a citizen’s right to disobey unjust laws. Ralph Waldo Emerson and â€Å"The American Scholar† – Emerson emerged in the late 1830s as the most influential spokesman for American literary nationalism. He announced his address â€Å"The American Scholar. † The time had come for Americans to trust themselves. Let â€Å"the single man plant himself indomitably on his instincts and there abide,† he proclaimed. Transcendentalism – It’s a philosophical movement that developed in the 1830s and 1840s in the Eastern region of the United States as a protest to the general state of culture and society. Among their core beliefs was the inherent goodness of both man and nature. They believed that society and its institutions ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. Margaret Fuller – Her status as an intellectual woman distanced her from conventional society. Disappointed that his first child was not a boy, her Harvard educated father determined to give Margaret the sort of education young men would have acquired at Harvard. Fuller turned transcendentalism into an occupation of sorts. Nathaniel Hawthorne – Hawthorne was a major contributor to the American Renaissance. He wrote the famous novel, The Scarlett Letter along with The House of the Seven Gables and The Marble Faun in Rome. He ignored Emerson’s call to write about everyday experiences of their fellow Americans. Ironically, their conviction that the lives of ordinary Americans provided inadequate materials for fiction led them to create a uniquely American fiction marked less by the description of the complex social relationships of ordinary life than by the analysis or moral dilemmas and psychological states. Walt Whitman – Self-taught and in love with virtually everything about America except slavery, Whitman left school at eleven and became a printer’s apprentice and later a journalist and editor for various newspapers in Brooklyn, Manhattan, and New Orleans. A familiar figure at Democratic Party functions, he marched in party parades and put his pen to the service of its antislavery wing. Herman Melville – Melville was another key contributor to the American Renaissance who primarily wrote fiction. He did draw materials and themes from his own experiences as a sailor and from the lore of the New England whaling industry, but for his novels, be picked the exotic setting of islands in the South Seas. He wrote the famous Moby-Dick. Thomas Cole, Asher Durand, Frederic Church, and the Hudson River School – The Hudson River School flourished from the 1820s to the 1870s. Cole, Durand, and Church best represented more than fifty painters. They painted scenes of the region around the Hudson River, a waterway that Americans compared in majesty to the Rhine. Lyceums – This is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies between countries; usually it is a type of secondary school. Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux – In 1858, New York City chose a plan drawn by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux for its proposed Central Park. Olmstead eventually became the park’s chief architect. They both wanted the park to look as much like the countryside as possible, showing nothing of the surrounding city.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

gender roles inherent or socialized? Essay -- essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The belief that gender roles are inherently biological is a cultural fallacy, which can lead to an inability to effectively communicate when we do not assess each individual’s personality. Research of this topic is necessary in order to learn how to completely understand how to communicate. When trying to communicate with an individual there are more variables than simply gender that need to be assessed. However, there are many ways that society implies that this is not necessary. Our society has been taught that gender roles are inherent, biological and behavioral characteristics. This belief is perpetuated through mass media, toys, clothing trends, advertisements, architecture, food and virtually everything else around us. This process begins at birth and continues through adulthood. These gender roles that society has set before us before us can be demeaning and create obstacles as well. At this point, it is necessary to define the terms sex and gender as they will be used. The book ‘Sex and Gender Differences in Personal Relationships’ defines sex as â€Å"the biological distinctions between men and women,† and gender as â€Å"the social, psychological and cultural differentiations between men and women (Canary and Emmers- Sommer p.6).†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This is one of the important factors to address because it proves the point that while there are obviously differences between men and women, everyone of the same sex cannot be specifi...

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Tangible Non-Current Assets

Q1. Use the information given below. What will be the total capitalized cost with respect to new business (Answer in $000)? (FIB)Land $6,000,000Inspection Officer $200,000Architecture Design $100,000Labour Wages $1,200,000Material Cost $2,500,000Administration Cost $400,000Property Tax $300,000Site Overheads $150,00037147528384500$ (2 marks) Q2. Siva Co took some loans from the bank at the start of the year 2010 which are as follows: 6% loan repayable in 2011 of $8m & a 9% loan repayable in 2015 of $18m. A construction of a qualifying asset began on 5th April 2010 with the withdrawal of $3m of funds. On 12th August 2010, another $4m was withdrawn for the qualifying asset. What will be the capitalized borrowing cost at the end of the year 2010? (MCQ) $181,800$216,467$316,467$533,851(2 marks) Q3. Relay Co borrowed $60,000 to finance the construction of a shop. Construction will commence in two years' time. The loan was taken on 1st January 2001 but the construction began on 1st March 2001. $13,000 of the loan was unused until 1st July 2001 and instead of keeping it idle Relay Co invested the amount with 3% return. The interest payable for the company is at 10% per annum. Calculate the cost to be capitalized for the year ended on December 2001? (MCQ)$4,800$4,870$5,130$6,000(2 marks) Q4. To operate a local locomotive the government has applied a restriction that in every two years the wheels of the locomotive has to be replaced. This replacement will cost $1.9 million. How should the replacement cost be treated? (MCQ)The cost should be taken into profit ; loss account when it is incurred The cost should be accrued over the two years ; accounted for the maintenance costThe cost should be provided in advance ; accounted for under the maintenance costCapitalize the cost ; depreciate it over the two years until next time(2 marks) Q5. Trivial Co has purchased an asset worth $375,000 on 1st January 2000 ; its useful life is stated at 20 years. A revaluation was taken place on 31st March 2002 where the assets worth increased to $390,000. What will be the total depreciation charged on the asset for the year ended 31st December 2002? (MCQ)$4,687$16,479$21,167$23,872(2 marks) Q6. Accenture Co has rented its office building to 3rd party on 30th June 2020. The company uses the fair valuation model for investment property. Buildings original cost valued at $500,000 on 1st January 2012 ; total life were 25 years. A fair value was obtained on the rented day which valued the building at $400,600. At the year-end of 2020, the fair value of the building was $850,000. What will be the revaluation gain/loss on 31st December 2020? (MCQ)$50,000 (Loss)$70,600 (Gain)$170,00 (Gain)$203,100 (Loss)(2 marks) Q7. Hexcentric inaugurated a plant on 1st July 2016. The plant was expected to run for four years until 30th June 2020. After the expected life the plant would be decommissioned and the land will be restored close to its original state. The cost of decommissioning was expected to be $6 million in four years. This estimate was calculated on 1st July 2016. To calculate the present value the company will use an 8% discount rate where the discount factor for year four is 0.735. Calculate the total charge for the cost to be taken into year-end 30th June 2017 profit ; loss account? (MCQ)$352,800$1,102,500$1,455,300$2,088,000(2 marks) Q8. The following statements relate to revaluation. (HA) The entire class of PPE has to be revalued whenever a single equipment in the respective class undergoes revaluation TRUE FALSEIf a revaluation model is used revaluation must be made regularly to ensure carrying amount has a material difference from the fair value TRUE FALSE(2 marks) Q9. Pang Co has purchased a property worth $7 million on 1st January 2013. The land valued at $3 million. The building total life was 20 years with no residual value. On 31st December 2015, the property was revalued to $9 million where the building valued at $5.184 million. The property was fully sold on 30th December 2017 for $6.5 million. Calculate the gain/loss on disposal which will be accounted for profit ; loss? (MCQ) $1,924,000 (Loss)$3,816,000 (Loss)$4,608,000 (Gain)$2,824,000 (Gain)(2 marks) Q10. Which of the following statements are correct in relation to government grants? (MRQ)A government grant is recognized in the profit ; loss over an assets useful lifeA repayment of a government grant received in previous years is a prior period adjustmentA marketing advice from the government does not constitute under the definition of government grantThe grant received for an asset must be excluded from the carrying amount of the asset (2 marks) Q11. A company has inaugurated a new plant with the help of a government grant of $20,000. The life of the plant is five years. Other than granting the installed equipment in the plant cost $90,000. All equipment is depreciated at 20% per annum on a straight-line basis. Calculate the value of government grant taken into Year 1 current liability using deferred income method? (MCQ)$4,000$16,000$18,000$20,000(2 marks) Q12. A company issued loan notes for $200,000 on 1st January 2008. On the same day, the company used the money to buy an investment property. At the year-end, the fair value of the property had risen to $400,000 with a remaining life of ten years. The company uses the fair value model for all properties. Which of the values will be accounted in the year's profit ; loss account? (MCQ)Gain $200,000, Depreciation $40,000Gain $0, Depreciation $40,000Gain $200,000, Depreciation $0Gain $200,000, Depreciation $20,000(2 marks) Q13. Zima Co took some loans from the bank at the start of the year 2015 which are as follows: 9% loan repayable in 2016 of $11m ; a 13% loan repayable in 2020 of $29m. A construction of a qualifying asset began on 5th April 2015 with the withdrawal of $8m of funds. On 12th August 2015, another $9m was withdrawn for the qualifying asset. What will be the capitalized borrowing cost at the end of the year 2015? (MCQ) $267,750$446,250$714,000$1,160,250(2 marks) Q14. Olay Co borrowed $25,000 to finance the construction of a plant. Construction will commence in two years' time. The loan was taken on 1st January 2013 but the construction began on 1st March 2013. $6,000 of the loan was unused until 1st July 2013 and instead of keeping it idle Olay Co invested the amount with 7% return. The interest payable for the company is at 15% per annum. Calculate the cost to be capitalized for the year ended on December 2013? (FIB)3613151270000$ (2 marks) Q15. Plato Co has purchased an asset worth $258,990 on 1st January 2008 ; its useful life is stated at twenty years. A revaluation was taken place on 31st March 2010 where the assets worth increased to $310,000. What will be the total depreciation charged on the asset for the year ended 31st December 2010 nearest to $000? (FIB)3613151270000$ (2 marks) Q16. Ventura Co has rented one its properties to a 3rd party on 30th June 2010. The company uses the fair valuation model as an investment property. Property's original cost valued at $800,800 on 1st January 2002 ; total life was 50 years. A fair value was obtained on the rented day which valued the building at $750,500. At the year-end of 2010, the fair value of the building was $1,150,000. What will be the revaluation gain at 31st December 2010? (FIB)3613151270000$ (2 marks) Q17. Boric Co opened a machine on 1st July 2006. The plant was expected to run for four years until 30th June 2010. After the expected life the machine would be decommissioned and the area will be restored nearest to its original state. The cost of decommissioning was expected to be $3.3 million in four years. This estimate was calculated on 1st July 2006. To calculate the present value the company will use a 12% discount rate. Calculate the total charge for the cost to be taken into year-end 30th June 2007 profit ; loss account? (MCQ)$251,856$272,844$524,700$776,556(2 marks) Q18. Bing Co has purchased a land ; building worth $12 million on 1st January 2005. The land valued at $4 million. The buildings total life was ten years with no residual value. On 31st December 2007, the land ; building were revalued to $16 million where the land valued at $6.75 million. The land ; building was fully sold by 30th December 2009 for $10.5 million. Calculate the gain/loss on disposal? (MCQ) $4,472,000 (Loss)$1,600,000 (Loss)$1,028,000 (Gain)$5,600,000 (Gain)(2 marks) Q19. Jazzy Co has opened a new factory with the help of a government grant of $580,600. The life of the plant is fifteen years. Other than granting the installed equipment in the plant cost $20,400. All equipment is depreciated at 25% per annum on reducing balance basis. Calculate the value of government grant taken into Year 1 current liability using deferred income method? (MCQ)$15,300$20,400$145,150$150,250(2 marks)TANGIBLE NON-CURRENT ASSETS (ANSWERS)Q1. $10,150 Capitalized Cost = 6,000 + 200 + 100 + 1,200 + 2,500 + 150 = $10,150 Q2. CInterest = (8 Ãâ€" 6%) = 0.48 + (18 Ãâ€" 9%) = 1.62 = 2.1(2.1 à · 26) Ãâ€" 100 = 8.08%3,000,000 Ãâ€" 8.08% Ãâ€" 9/12 = 181,8004,000,000 Ãâ€" 8.08% Ãâ€" 5/12 = 134,667Total = 181,800 + 134,667 = $316,467 Q3. B60,000 Ãâ€" 10% Ãâ€" 10/12 = 5,00013,000 Ãâ€" 3% Ãâ€" 4/12 = (130)Total = 5,000 – 130 = $4,870 Q4. DThis is known as overhauling where maintenance, inspection or any repair is required. It is capitalized in the asset ; depreciated over its useful life in this case the life of wheels. Q5. CDepreciation till 31st March = (375,000 à · 20) = 18,750 Ãâ€" 3/12 = $4,687Years = 20 – 2.25 = 17.75 remainingDepreciation till 31st December = (390,000 à · 17.75) = 21,972 Ãâ€" 9/12 = $16,479Total = 4,687 + 16,479 = $21,167 Q6. BDepreciation = (500,000 à · 25) Ãâ€" 8.5 = 170,000Cost – Depreciation = 500,000 – 170,000 = 330,000Revaluation Gain = 400,600 – 330,000 = 70,600 Q7. CDepreciation = 6,000,000 Ãâ€" 0.735 = 4,410,000 à · 4 = 1,102,500 Finance Cost = 4,410,000 Ãâ€" 8% = 352,800Total = 1,102,500 + 352,800 = $1,455,300 Q8.The entire class of PPE has to be revalued whenever a single equipment in the respective class undergoes revaluation TRUE If a revaluation model is used revaluation must be made regularly to ensure carrying amount has a material difference from the fair value FALSEThe difference between carrying amount ; the fair value should be immaterial when applying revaluation model. Q9. AWorkings are done in $000.Depreciation (Building) = (4,000 à · 20) Ãâ€" 2 = 400Cost = 7,000 – 400 = 6,600 Revalued to 9,000 with gain of 2,400Depreciation (Building) = (5,184 à · 18) Ãâ€" 2 = 576Building value = 5,184 – 576 = 4,608Property value = (4,608 Building) + (3,816 Land) = 8,424Loss on disposal = 8,424 – 6,500 = 1,924 Q10.A government grant is recognized in the profit ; loss over an assets useful life (Correct)A repayment of a government grant received in previous years is a prior period adjustment; all adjustments are to be dealt prospectively A marketing advice from the government does not constitute under the definition of government grant (Correct)The grant received for an asset must be excluded from the carrying amount of the asset; a deferred income method can be used also Q11. AThe deferred income method:Year 0Equipment Dr. (90+20) $110,000Bank Cr $90,000Government Grant Cr $20,000Year 1Depreciation for equipment = 110,000 Ãâ€" 20% = $22,000Government Grant = 20,000 Ãâ€" 20% = $4,000 (Current Liability) Q12. CThe gain of $200,000 will be recorded as in fair value model no depreciation is charged. Q13.Interest = (11 Ãâ€" 9%) = 0.99 + (29 Ãâ€" 13%) = 3.77 = 4.76(4.76 à · 40) Ãâ€" 100 = 11.9%8,000,000 Ãâ€" 11.9% Ãâ€" 9/12 = 714,0009,000,000 Ãâ€" 11.9% Ãâ€" 5/12 = 446,250Total = 714,000 + 446,250 = $1,160,250Q14. $2,98525,000 Ãâ€" 15% Ãâ€" 10/12 = 3,1256,000 Ãâ€" 7% Ãâ€" 4/12 = (140)Total = 3,125 – 140 = $2,985 Q15. $16,300Depreciation till 31st March = (258,990 à · 20) = 12,950 Ãâ€" 3/12 = $3,238Years = 20 – 2.25 = 17.75 remainingDepreciation till 31st December = (310,000 à · 17.75) = 17,465 Ãâ€" 9/12 = $13,099Total = 3,238 + 13,099 = $16,337Nearest to $000 = $16,300 Q16. $85,836Depreciation = (800,800 à · 50) Ãâ€" 8.5 = 136,136Cost – Depreciation = 800,800 – 136,136 = 664,664Revaluation Gain = 750,500 – 664,664 = $85,836 Q17. DDepreciation = 3,300,000 Ãâ€" 0.636 = 2,098,800 à · 4 = 524,700 Finance Cost = 2,098,800 Ãâ€" 12% = 251,856Total = 524,700 + 251,856 = $776,556 Q18. AWorkings are done in $000.Depreciation (Building) = (8,000 à · 10) Ãâ€" 2 = 1,600Cost = 12,000 – 1,600 = 10,400 Revalued to 16,000 with gain of 5,600Depreciation (Building) = (9,250 à · 18) Ãâ€" 2 = 1,028Building value = 9,250 – 1,028 = 8,222Land ; Building value = (8,222 Building) + (6,750 Land) = 14,972Loss on disposal = 14,972 – 10,500 = 4,472 Q19. CThe deferred income method:Year 0Equipment Dr. (580,600 + 20,400) $601,000Bank Cr $20,400Government Grant Cr $580,600Year 1Depreciation for equipment = 601,000 Ãâ€" 25% = $150,250Government Grant = 580,600 Ãâ€" 25% = $145,150 (Current Liability)

Monday, January 6, 2020

Compare and contrast the learning principles of Pavlovs Classical Conditioning and Skinners Operant Conditioning Free Essay Example, 2000 words

Pavlovs findings was significant to psychologists influencing a prominent American psychologist name J. B Watson who conducted an experiment aimed at demonstrating conditioning of fear responses in human beings. Using little Albert as his subject, Watson used a rat as the neutral stimulus, loud noise as his unconditioned stimulus, and observed his fearful reactions (unconditioned response). Initially, baby Albert did not exhibit fearful reactions to the rat. However, after Watson repeatedly paired the rats appearance with loud noise, Albert exhibited fearful reactions towards the rat. This marked a milestone in understanding modification of behavior in human beings through classical conditioning. B. F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Burrhus Frederic Skinner was also a proponent of behaviorism; however, his ideologies represented a more radicalized view. According to him, past experiences defined by a person’s environment (environmental histories) and reinforcing consequences influence people’s behaviors. Schedules of reinforcement are integral to operant conditioning. They encompass duration and frequency of reinforcing desirable behavior. They include continuous and partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedules, whereby the latter has other four sub-categories. i. Continuous reinforcement schedule- it encompasses reinforcement of behavior after every occurrence. We will write a custom essay sample on Compare and contrast the learning principles of Pavlov's Classical Conditioning and Skinner's Operant Conditioning or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now More often than not, this schedule proves useful during the initial stages of learning new behaviors. It allows individuals to establish a strong association between behaviors and responses. Negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement and punishments are all useful in the implementation of continuous reinforcement schedule. ii. Intermittent/partial reinforcement schedule- in this type, reinforcement occurs part of the time. This prevents display of behaviors only when the time for reinforcing the behavior draws nearer. In addition, it prevents extinction of the behavior because the strengthening of associations formed between behaviors and responses occurs is continuous. The sub-categories include: Fixed-ratio- refers to an intermittent schedule characterized by the reinforcement of behavior after a specific number of responses. Variable-ratio- refers to an intermittent schedule characterized by the reinforcement of behavior after a varied or unp redictable number of responses. Such a schedule created a high and steady rate of responding. Fixed-interval- refers to an intermittent schedule characterized by the reinforcement of the first response after its occurrence after a specified amount of time passes.